Today, E-waste represents the biggest and fastest growing manufacturing waste which barely existed 30 years ago. But do we ever sit down to think about the fate of these gadgets at the end of their useful life?
E-waste is categorized as hazardous waste and being composed as it is, of substances like lead, cadmium and mercury among others, which, if incorrectly disposed, can result in serious damage to human’s health and the environment.
Handling of electronic waste has significant environmental and social consequences. Its unconscionable disposal can adversely trigger soil and groundwater pollution, while taking its toll on human health as well as multifarious flora and fauna.
In 2014, USA generates 50 football fields worth of electronic waste on a daily basis (Heale, 2015). The concept of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) is widely recognised as the solution that will resolve the e-waste issue (Terazono et al., 2006).
- To create awareness in schools and universities.
- To ensure that, prevention takes precedence over recovery of E-waste, including hazardous waste.
- Tapping the potential of local electronic repair shops at local and state level through NGOS,s initiative
- Strict regulations on scrap dumping from foreign countries
- utilizing social media platform for awareness programs
- Open live debates through electronic media illustrating the detrimental effects of this indispensable waste on society.
- Extending manufacturing responsibility to the post-consumer stage of the product life cycle and also its disposal.
- Maintenance of national level inventory records for e-waste.
With increase in population growth across the globe along with fast development and rampaging consumerism, contemporary society is facing major challenges in waste management.
Waste management is efficiently used and reduced and then collected, recycled and treated in an adequate manner so that everyone could exercise their rights to and environment with clean air, water, seas and land.
Sustainable waste management is a process focusing on reducing and managing the waste from the sources and it’s a way of thinking that profoundly changes our approaches to resources and production.
Among the major global environmental issues being faced by all developed/developing countries is waste management.
CCAECI policy on waste is to achieve a recycling-based economy that conserves resources and reduces adverse impacts on the environment, i.e. turning today’s trash into tomorrow treasure-trove.
- To provide a comprehensive waste management strategies across the various states
- To ensure that, prevention takes precedence over recovery of waste, including hazardous waste.
- Good governance – Good Legislation as the key to improving waste management.
- Delivering Innovative solution through science and technology.
- Offering solution/Equipment helping government solve their environmental issues and ensure compliance with environmental regulations
- To influence the way we think and manage waste generally.
- To explore and adopt more environmentally friendly solutions.
Some environmental professionals have posited that industrial waste generation cannot be completely avoided, though their control is very important to the safety of the bigger environment with well a regulated environmental policies on discharge of partially or untreated effluent into public grains; water, air, noise and soil pollution.
Hirsch W. Z. (1998) posited that, companies in unprincipled pursuit of profit can do great social harm. The environment suffers at the hands of companies which put production ahead of environmental protection
- Maintenance of national level inventory records for industrial waste company
- To create awareness in local communities, schools and universities.
- Tapping the potential of researched institute through NGOS,s initiative
- Strict regulations on industrial waste dumping from foreign countries and local
- Open live debates through electronic media illustrating the detrimental effects of this indispensable waste on society.
- To influence the way we think and manage industrial waste generally.
- To explore and adopt more environmentally friendly solutions.
- Good governance – Good Legislation as the key to improving industrial waste management.
Sustainable development has broad appeal and little specificity, but some combination of development and environment as well as equity is found in many attempts to describe it. However, proponent of Sustainable development differs in their emphases on what is to be sustained, what is to be developed, how to link environment and development, and for how long a time.
Environmental sustainability is defined as responsible interaction with the environment to avoid depletion or degradation of natural resources and allow for long-term environmental quality. The practice of environmental sustainability helps to ensure that the needs of today’s population are met without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
One way environmental sustainability is being applied is through sustainable agriculture. This is defined as the use of farming techniques that protect the environment. Sustainable agriculture has grown out of concurs over the industrialization of agriculture that began in the 20th century. Industrial agricultural methods are heavily reliant on chemical fertilizers and pesticides and put high demands on soil and water resources. Also, industrial crops are often mono-crops, which involve growing a single crop year after year with Sustainable agriculture, farmers minimizes water use and lower the dependence on chemical pesticides and fertilizers. They also minimize tillage of the soil and rotate crop planting each year to ensure higher soil quality.
Children may suffer disproportionately from environmental health risks and safety risks. Learn about the risks and how to help protect children from them.
Listed below are tips to help protect children from environmental risks.
Keep pesticides and other toxic chemicals away from children
- Store food and trash in closed containers to keep pests from coming into your home.
- Use baits and traps when you can; place baits and traps where kids can't get them.
- Read product labels and follow directions.
- Store pesticides and toxic chemicals where kids can't reach them - never put them in other containers that kids can mistake for food or drink.
- Keep children, toys, and pets away when pesticides are applied; don't let them play in fields, orchards, and gardens after pesticides have been used for at least the time recommended on the pesticide label.
- Wash fruits and vegetables under running water before eating - peel them before eating, when possible.
Because of the permanent interaction between man and his environment, our health is to a considerable extent determined by the environmental quality. As a consequence, environment and health are closely related.
The environment in which we live, work and relax, is determining for our health and well-being. Physical, as well as chemical and micro (biological) factors in the environment can have repercussions on our health, both physically and mentally.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) definition of health emphasizes the physical, mental and social well-being: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Health is considered as an overall concept reaching beyond the absence of illness and ailments.
Well-being and quality of life are subject to an impressive number of factors, including psychological, social and environment-related aspects. In addition to positive influences such as green belts and entertainment areas, it is also important to identify the negative factors, such as noise, odour and light nuisance.
However, the relation between environment and health is extremely complex. Although many health problems are taught to be associated with environmental pollution, it is difficult to assess the seriousness, extent and causes of environment-related diseases. Besides environmental-related causes, there are other factors which can directly or indirectly lead to the same health problems.
The impact on our health not only involves the consequences of air, ground and water pollution, but also other factors, such as genetic susceptibility, food contamination, radiation, life style and life quality.
When analysing relations between environment and health, it is of vital importance to consider a broader definition of "environment": not only the quality of the air, water and ground, but also indoor air quality, food and the living and working environment need to be taken into account.
The mission of CCAECI is to protect human health and the environment. To accomplish this, CCAECI tries to ensure adequate access to accurate information sufficient to effectively participate in managing human health and environmental risks
We all come into contact with toxins (another name for poisons) in the environment. Some are in our food, our homes, and where we work and play. There are things you can do to limit contact with them. Here are some suggestions to make your food, home, and community safer. Remember that toxins are different depending where you live, so find out about those in your local area.
- Choose personal care and baby products with fewer toxins: Check the safety of your personal care products, like shampoo, soap, and deodorant
- Reduce your exposure to pesticides or Treat pests with non-toxic and least-toxic alternatives
- Reduce toxins in your work place or school: Learn about the chemicals, hazards, or exposures in a particular industry or job.
Protect children from chemical poisoning
If a child has swallowed or inhaled a toxic product such as a household cleaner or pesticide, or gotten it in their eye or on their skin
- Take the child to the nearest hospital for treatment if the child is unconscious, having trouble breathing, or having convulsions.
Check the label for directions on how to give first aid.
Help children breathe easier
- Don't smoke and don't let others smoke in your home or car.
- Keep your home as clean as possible. Dust, mold, certain household pests, secondhand smoke, and pet dander can trigger asthma attacks and allergies.
- Limit outdoor activity on ozone alert days when air pollution is especially harmful.
- Walk, use bicycles, join or form carpools, and take public transportation.
- Limit motor vehicle idling.
- Avoid open burning.
- Limit outdoor activity on poor air quality days.
Protect children from lead poisoning
- Get kids tested for leadby their doctor or health care provider.
- Wash children's hands before they eat; wash bottles, pacifiers, and toys often.
- Wash floors and window sills to protect kids from dust and peeling paint contaminated with lead- especially in older homes.
- Run cold water until it becomes as cold as it can get. Use only cold water for drinking, cooking, and making baby formula.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Protect children from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning
- Have fuel-burning appliances, furnace flues, and chimneys checked once a year.
- Never use gas ovens or burners for heat; never use barbecues or grills indoors or in the garage.
- Never sleep in rooms with unvented gas or kerosene space heaters.
- Don't run cars or lawnmowers in the garage.
Install in sleeping areas a CO alarm that meets UL, IAS, or Canadian standards
Protect children from contaminated fish and polluted water
- Be alert for local fish advisories and beach closings. Contact your local health department.
- Be alert some fish in the open market where killed using poisonous chemicals.
- Take used motor oil to a recycling center; properly dispose of toxic household chemicals.
- Learn what's in your drinking water - call your local public water supplier for annual drinking water quality reports; for private drinking water wells, have them tested annually by a certified laboratory.
Too Much Sun
Protect children from too much sun
- Wear hats, sunglasses, and protective clothing.
- Use sunscreen with SPF 15+ on kids over six months; keep infants out of direct sunlight.
- Limit time in the mid-day sun - the sun is most intense between 10 and 4.
Keep children and mercury apart
- Eat a balanced diet but avoid fish with high levels of mercury.
- Replace mercury thermometers with digital thermometers.
- Don't let kids handle or play with mercury.
- Never heat or burn mercury.
- Contact your state or local health or environment department if mercury is spilled - never vacuum a spill.
Promote healthier communities
- Walk, use bicycles, join or form carpools, and take public transportation to reduce air pollution, including greenhouse gases
- Spearhead a clean school bus campaign in your community. g. Clean School Bus USA emphasizes three ways to reduce public school bus emissions:
- Anti-idling strategies: Unnecessary idling pollutes the air, wastes fuel, and causes excess engine wear. It also wastes money and results in the wear and tear of the vehicle's engine.
- Engine retrofit and clean fuels: Retrofitted engines run cleaner because they have been fitted with devices designed to reduce pollution and/or use cleaner fuel.
- Bus replacement: Older buses are not equipped with today's pollution control or safety features. Pre-1990 buses have been estimated to emit as much as six times more pollution as new buses that were built starting in 2004 and as much as 60 times more pollution as buses that meet the 2007 standards.
- Develop safe routes so that children can walk to and from school, limiting vehicle use and increasing physical activity. Conduct walkability audits in your community to understand where you can and cannot walk. Children can help for a fun and educational activity.
- Promote green building. Green building considerations include:
- Careful site selection to minimize impacts on the surrounding environment and increase alternative transportation options.
- Energy and water conservation to help ensure efficient use of natural resources and lower utility bills.
- Responsible storm water managementto help limit disruption of natural watershed functions and reduce the environmental impacts of storm water runoff.
- Improved indoor air qualitythrough the use of low volatile organic compound products and careful ventilation practices during construction and renovation.
- Use Indoor Air Quality Design Tools to create healthy school environments. Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a critically important aspect of creating and maintaining school facilities. IAQ Design Tools for Schoolsprovides detailed guidance and links to other resources to help design new schools and repair, renovate and maintain existing facilities. IAQ Design Tools for Schools is Web-based guidance to assist school districts, architects, and facility planners design and construct the next generation of schools.
- Providing information, model programs, and analytical tools to inform communities about growth and development.
- Protect children's environmental health. Children may be more vulnerable to environmental exposures than adults because:
- Their bodily systems are still developing
- They eat more, drink more, and breathe more in proportion to their body size
- Their behavior can expose them more to chemicals and organisms
- For questions about children's health and environmental conditions, visit pehsu.net.
- Contact your local health department and ask about cooling centers, disaster preparedness, and other issues of concern to you.
- Sign up for weather, air quality, water quality and pollen count alert systems through your local government.
- Plant trees, walk instead of driving, teach your children to ride bikes, support neighbourhood gardens, recycle paper, compost kitchen waste, and conserve water -- taking simple steps to improve the environment really does help!
- Learn more about climate change at http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange.
Too Much Heat
Too much heat
- If you are pregnant try to stay cool, stretch your legs and sip water more often than usual to prevent dehydration.
- Infants and young children overheat quickly and are less able to adapt to extreme heat. Offer sips of water often.
- Dress infants and children is loose, lightweight, light colour clothing.
- Children may not ask for water and may not be aware that they need to cool down.
- Never leave infants in a parked car.
- Help children find places to cool off when they are overheated.
- Ensure that children drink plenty of water before and after athletic events.
- Monitor children, and even teenagers, for signs of heat-related illness, provide water, and have a plan to combat heat illness.
- Communities can work together to create cooling centres for children, to issue heat warnings and alerts, and to air condition schools.
- Seek medical care right away if your child has signs of heat-related illness.
- Keep the ticks away from your child to prevent Lyme disease. See http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/pre/on_people.html.
- Have children wear protective clothing, such as socks, shoes and long pants if possible.
- Reduce tick habitats by keeping grass short and removing brush from play areas.
- Parents should apply insect repellent rated for ticks on children. Always follow label instructions and avoid applying on hands or near eyes and mouth.
- Check children for ticks after they have been outdoors, especially in wooded areas and meadows
- Teach children how to check themselves for ticks, and what to do if they find one.
- Have children bathe or shower after playing in woods or grassy fields.
- Remove ticks promptly. See http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/removal/index.html.
- Call you child's health professional if you suspect Lyme disease -- some early signs can include a red expanding "bulls-eye" rash around the spot a tick attached, fatigue, chills, fever, headache, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes (particularly of note when other children or members of the family aren't sick).
Stopping Mosquito Bites
- Use insect repellents when your children play outdoors. Always follow the label directions.
- Wear long sleeves and pants from dusk through dawn when mosquitoes are most active.
- Install or repair screens on windows and doors. If you can, use your air conditioning.
- Help reduce the number of mosquitoes around your home by emptying standing water from containers, flowerpots, gutters, buckets, pool covers, pet dishes, tires, and birdbaths.
- For more information see http://www.cdc.gov/features/StopMosquitoes/
Order Tips from the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP).
Children Are Not Little Adults!
- Children are often more likely to be at risk from environmental hazards than adults because of:
- Unique activity patterns and behavior.
- Physiological differences.
- Windows of susceptibility during early life stages including fetal development and puberty.
- Children are also dependent upon adults to ensure that their environment is safe.
B. Unique Activity Patterns + Behaviour
- Children crawl and play close to the ground making them more likely to come into contact with dirt and dust, which can include toxicants.
- Children often put their hands, toys, and other items into their mouths.
- Children eat, breathe, and drink more relative to their body mass than adults do.
- Children’s natural defences are less developed.
- More permeable blood-brain barrier.
- Less effective filtration in nasal passages.
- Highly permeable skin.
- Lower levels of circulation of plasma proteins.
- Digestive system, metabolic pathways, renal clearances, and vital organs are still developing.
D. Windows of Susceptibility
- The timing of exposure to chemicals or other insults is critical in determining the consequences to children’s health.
- Because of the differing windows of susceptibility, the same dose of a chemical during different periods of development can have very different consequences.
- For example, fetal loss or birth defects are most likely to occur as a result of exposures to chemicals during the embryonic period, when organs are beginning to differentiate.
- Even after the basic structure of an organ has been established, disruption of processes such as growth and cell migration can have lifelong consequences on the function of key organ systems.
- Due to the complexity and speed of development during the prenatal period, organ system development is particularly susceptible to adverse effects resulting from environmental exposures.
As we age, our bodies are more susceptible to hazards from the environment which may worsen chronic or life threatening conditions. Learn about the risks to older people and how to reduce hazards.